Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Mississippians Were the Mound Builders in North America

Mississippians Were the Mound Builders in North America The Mississippian culture is what archaeologists call the pre-Columbian horticulturalists who lived in the midwestern and southeastern United States between about AD 1000-1550. Mississippian sites have been identified within the river valleys of nearly a third of what is today the United States, including an area centered in Illinois but found as far south as the Florida panhandle, west as Oklahoma, north as Minnesota, and east as Ohio. Mississippian Chronology 1539 - Hernando de Sotos expedition visits Mississippian polities from Florida to Texas1450-1539 - mound centers regroup, some develop paramount leaders1350-1450 - Cahokia abandoned, many other mound centers decrease in population1100-1350 - multiple mound centers arise radiating out from Cahokia1050-1100 - Cahokias Big Bang, population peaks at 10,000-15,000, colonization efforts begin in the north800-1050 - un-palisaded villages and intensification of maize exploitation, Cahokia population at about 1000 by AD 1000 Regional Cultures The term Mississippian is a broad umbrella term that includes several similar regional archaeological cultures. The southwestern portion of this huge area (Arkansas, Texas, Oklahoma and adjacent states) is known as Caddo; the Oneota is found in Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois and Wisconsin); Fort Ancient is the term referring to Mississippian-like towns and settlements in the Ohio River Valley of Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana; and the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex includes the states of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. At a minimum, all of these distinctive cultures shared cultural traits of mound construction, artifact forms, symbols, and stratified ranking. Mississippian cultural groups were independent chiefdoms which were primarily connected, at varying levels, by loosely organized trade systems and warfare. The groups shared a common ranked societal structure; a farming technology based on the three sisters of maize, beans, and squash; fortification ditches and palisades; large earthen flat-topped pyramids (called platform mounds); and a set of rituals and symbols referring to fertility, ancestor worship, astronomical observations, and war. Origins of the Mississippians The archaeological site of Cahokia is the largest of the Mississippian sites and arguably the main generator for most of the ideas that make up Mississippian culture. It was located in the segment of the Mississippi River Valley in the central United States known as the American Bottom. In this rich environment just east of the modern day city of St. Louis, Missouri, Cahokia rose to become an enormous urban settlement. It has by far the largest mound of any Mississippian site and held a population of between 10,000-15,000 at its heyday. Cahokias center called Monks Mound covers an area of five hectares (12 acres) at its base and stands over 30 meters (~100 feet) tall. The vast majority of Mississippian mounds in other places are no more than 3 m (10 ft) high. Because of Cahokias extraordinary size and early development, American archaeologist Timothy Pauketat has argued that Cahokia was the regional polity which provided the impetus for the incipient Mississippian civilization. Certainly, in terms of chronology, the habit of constructing mound centers began at Cahokia and then moved outward into the Mississippi Delta and Black Warrior valleys in Alabama, followed by centers in Tennessee and Georgia. That is not to say that Cahokia ruled these areas, or even had direct hands-on influence in their construction. One key identifying the independent rise of the Mississippian centers is the  multiplicity of languages that were used by the Mississippians. Seven distinct language families were used in the Southeast alone (Muskogean, Iroquoian, Catawban, Caddoan, Algonkian, Tunican, Timuacan), and many of the languages were mutually unintelligible. Despite this, most scholars support the centrality of Cahokia and suggest that the different Mississippian polities emerged as a  combination of a product of several intersecting local and external factors. What Connects the Cultures to Cahokia? Archaeologists have identified several traits connecting Cahokia to the vast number of other Mississippian chiefdoms. Most of those studies indicate that Cahokias influence varied over time and space. The only true colonies established identified to date include about a dozen sites such as Trempealeau and Aztalan in Wisconsin, beginning about 1100 AD. American archaeologist Rachel Briggs suggests that the Mississippian standard jar and its usefulness in converting maize into edible hominy was a common thread for Alabamas Black Warrior Valley, which saw Mississippian contact as early as 1120 AD. In Fort Ancient sites, which Mississippian immigrants reached in the late 1300s, there was no increased use of maize, but according to Americanist Robert Cook, a new form of leadership developed, associated with dog/wolf clans and cult practices. The pre-Mississippian Gulf Coast societies seem to have been a generator of artifacts and ideas shared by the Mississippians. Lightning whelks (Busycon sinistrum), a Gulf Coast marine shellfish with a left-handed spiral construction, have been found at Cahokia and other Mississippian sites. Many are reworked into the form of shell cups, gorgets, and masks, as well as marine shell bead making. Some shell effigies made from pottery have also been identified. American archaeologists Marquardt and Kozuch suggest that the whelks left-handed spiral may have represented a metaphor for the continuity and inevitability of birth, death, and rebirth. There is also some evidence that groups along central Gulf Coast made stepped pyramids before Cahokias rise (Pluckhahn and colleagues). Social Organization Scholars are divided on the political structures of the various communities. To some scholars, a centralized political economy with a paramount chief or leader appears to have been in effect at many of the societies where burials of elite persons have been identified. In this theory, political control likely developed over the restricted access to food storage, labor to build platform mounds, craft production of luxury items of copper and shell, and the funding of feasting and other rituals. Social structure within the groups was ranked, with at least two or more classes of people with different amounts of power in evidence. The second group of scholars is of the opinion that most Mississippian political organizations were decentralized, that there may have been ranked societies, but access to status and luxury goods was by no means as imbalanced as one would expect with a true hierarchical structure. These scholars support the notion of autonomous polities who were engaged in loose alliances and warfare relationships, led by chiefs who were at least partly controlled by councils and kin- or clan-based factions. The most likely scenario is that the amount of control held by elites in Mississippian societies varied considerably from region to region. Where the centralized model probably works best are in those regions with clearly evident mound centers such as Cahokia and Etowah in Georgia; decentralization was clearly in effect in the Carolina Piedmont and southern Appalachia visited by 16th-century European expeditions. Sources Alt S. 2012. Making Mississippian at Cahokia. In: Pauketat TR, editor. Oxford Handbook of North American Archaeology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p 497-508.Bardolph D. 2014. Evaluating Cahokian Contact and Mississippian Identity Politics in the Late Prehistoric Central Illinois River Valley. American Antiquity 79(1):69-89.Briggs RV. 2017. The Civil Cooking Pot: Hominy and the Mississippian Standard Jar in the Black Warrior Valley, Alabama. American Antiquity 81(2):316-332.Cook R. 2012. Dogs of War: Potential Social Institutions of Conflict, Healing, and Death in a Fort Ancient Village. American Antiquity 77(3):498-523.Cook RA, and Price TD. 2015. Maize, mounds, and the movement of people: isotope analysis of a Mississippian/Fort Ancient region. Journal of Archaeological Science 61:112-128.Marquardt WH, and Kozuch L. 2016. The lightning whelk: An enduring icon of southeastern North American spirituality. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 42:1-26.Pauketat TR, Alt SM, and Kruc hten JD. 2017. The Emerald Acropolis: elevating the moon and water in the rise of Cahokia. Antiquity 91(355):207-222. Pluckhahn TJ, Thompson VD, and Rink WJ. 2016. Evidence for Stepped Pyramids of Shell in the Woodland Period of Eastern North America. American Antiquity 81(2):345-363.Skousen BJ. 2012. Posts, places, ancestors, and worlds: dividual personhood in the American Bottom region. Southeastern Archaeology 31(1):57-69.Slater PA, Hedman KM, and Emerson TE. 2014. Immigrants at the Mississippian polity of Cahokia: strontium isotope evidence for population movement. Journal of Archaeological Science 44:117-127.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Beh 225 Assignment Diagnosis and Treatment

Assignment: Diagnosis and Treatment Beh 225 July 10, 2011 Assignment: Diagnosis and Treatment According to the American Psychiatric Association, there is a fifteen percent prevalence of mental disorders in the United States. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive, is a mental disorder. Symptoms of bipolar disorder include extreme highs and extreme lows with periods of normal mood in between. Manic symptoms are being extremely active, talkative, distractible, unlimited hopes with no follow through, aggression, hostility, and violence.Depressive symptoms are feeling overwhelmed and worthless, loss of interest, insomnia, loss of concentration, and suicidal thoughts. Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death in the United States. Roughly, 29,000 people commit suicide each year. Bipolar Disorder can create marital and occupational problems as well as financial dismay. Mood disorders are thought to be caused by nature and nurture. Biological factors that may lead to a bipolar episode are chemical imbalances in the brain, hormonal imbalances, and inherited traits. Physiological factors that may lead to a bipolar episode include maladaptive cognitive distortions. The text defines this as â€Å"an illogical and maladaptive response to early negative life events that leads to feelings of incompetence and worthlessness that are reactivated whenever a new situation arises that resembles the original events. † (Morris and Maisto,2005) Studies suggest that women are two to three times more likely to have a mood disorder than men. Being diagnosed with bipolar disorder is a lifelong and reoccurring illness. There are different types of bipolar disorder. The symptoms of bipolar I are severe mood swings from manic to depressive that lasts at least seven days. Bipolar II occurs when mood swings are less manic, or hypomania, and shift back to depressive. When one’s symptoms are not determined to be either of these the disorder is called bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. These symptoms are not as fierce as the I and II characterization. Cyclothymiacs is a mild form of bipolar disorder. These milder forms of symptoms continue to shift over the course of two or more years. When a person has four or more episodes a year they are referred to as a rapid cycler. Although the onset of this disorder usually occurs in the twenties and thirties some children are also diagnosed. Children are more likely to be diagnosed early if they have two parents with the disorder. The child’s odds increase up to seventy-five percent in some cases. Many bipolar patients self medicate with drugs and alcohol. This action can trigger or prolong the symptoms. Bipolar disorder patients are at a higher risk for many diseases. These diseases include heart disease, diabetes, obesity, migraines, and thyroid disease. When one suspects they have bipolar disorder, a doctor needs to be consulted.The doctor will perform a physical examination, interview the patient, and order testing. There is no test for bipolar disorder but these tests will rule out other ailments. After reviewing all tests and lab reports a mental health evaluation will be preformed. Family history will be taken as well as interviewing the family of said patient. Bipolar patients tend to seek help in the depressive state rather than the manic state. This disorder is treated with medications and psychotherapies. Over the course of treatment, several medicines may be tested. The first choice of treatment is a mood stabilizer.The FDA approved lithium in the 70’s for treatment of mania. In 1995, the FDA in treating mania approved depakote. Recently, the FDA in treating bipolar disorder approved an anticonvulsive medication. Anti convulsive medicines are lamictal, neurontin, topomax, and trileptal. Atypical antipsychotic, or second generation, medicines are also used occasionally. These medicines are zyprexa, abilify, seroquel, risperdal, and geodon. These medications relieve sudden and severe mania symptoms. Anti depressants are used in treating the depressive side of bipolar disorder.Prozac, paxil, Zoloft, and wellbutrin are all examples of anti depressants. Mild side effects to medicines include headache, rashes, and heartburn. These side effects usually go away as one get used to taking the medicine. Serious side effects can occur, as with any medicine, such as tardive dyskinesia. This is uncontrollable muscle movement, usually around the mouth, that needs to be discussed with a doctor. In addition to medication, psychotherapy is recommended. These therapies include cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and social rhythm therapy.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Case study report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Report - Case Study Example Today organizations are emerging as diverse workforce in terms of gender race and civilization. Therefore, changes in the organization demographic condition and rapid advancement in technology lead to unresolved disputes in the workplace, which raises the issue of equal employment legislation. By definition, diversity refers to a variety of demographic features describing a company’s workforce, which comprises of race, sex, culture, religion etc. It signifies removing the difference among the people belonging to different cultures, gender, caste etc. In short, managing the diversity maximizes the diversities of company’s demographic characteristics and minimizing the potential barriers in the workforce, which can hamper the company’s growth and performance. By conducting diversity management programs in the organization, managers will be able to provide strong leadership in the diverse workgroup through which they can represent themselves as role models for exemp lifying their pro diversity behaviors and helping each individual in the workgroup to overcome from the different circumstances. Therefore, good management practices will help the organization to attract the best talents from different sources and in this way, the company will be able to save his time and money in recruitment and turnover costs. Today managing the diversity has become a biggest challenge for the organization to manage the generation X, generation Y, and baby boomers. These three generations in the workforce include unique characteristics that make them different from the members of the other workgroup. Therefore, one should care about managing the diversity because it will help the managers to gain the commitment from the employees and developing a better working force. In other way, it will help the organization to create a pleasant and healthy environment in order to attract the new generations and gaining the reputation in the market. For example, Singaporeâ€⠄¢s workforce focuses on creating culture diversity in their workforce by engaging employees from different generations, nationalities, caste etc that develops a sweet and pleasant environment in an organization. Hence, it has proved that managing diversity in the workforce is important because it helps the organization to assess the performance of the employees. In contrast, if the HR is not able to manage the diversity present in teams, the teams overall performance will lead to employee dissatisfaction in the working environment. Therefore, diversity within a team may strengthen the team’s external communication and its ability to interact and coordinate with the other teams (Kepner, Wysocki, Lopez & Green, 2012). Now days, the managers need to understand that mostly women impel the diversity in the organizations. Recruiting single mothers and increasing the participation level of the women will help the organization in building a reputation in the market and improving the quality of working life. While managing the diversity in the workplace managers need to understand that diversity not only indicates employees’ belonging from different nationalities but it is the different individuals who carry with themselves the

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Health Policy Assignment 2 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Health Policy 2 - Assignment Example We the American public feel that the authorities have not done enough to educate us on the virus. For example, ways in which the virus is transmitted and how to prevent it from spreading. Although all these happened, we must commend the authorities how they have handled the first two Ebola cases. When the first person showed the signs of the disease, they were quick to isolate the patient and check on everybody who was thought to have stumble upon him. It is a shame that one of the nurses who was attending to the patient contracted the disease. After the second patient was quarantined questions as to the United States preparedness as concerning, this epidemic was concerned came up. It was mostly because Thomas Eric Duncan did not exhibit any signs and symptoms of the infection prior to landing in the United States. The biggest scare came when it was reported that the nurse (Amber Vinson) who was supposed to be under quarantine was spotted walking around town instead of the hospital. This action made many people angry since it proved what many citizens believe that little is being done to combat the disease that has claimed thousands of people (CDC, 2014). The blame r ests solely on the relevant authorities, which include the airlines, the government and the center for disease control. If I were to implement policies that would enable the control of Ebola, firstly i would ensure that all the airlines screen all passengers who come from the Ebola prone regions (CDC, 2014). I would make sure that the affected gain the assistance they require and are quarantined in order to regulate the contact between the infected and the uninfected. I would also organize educational forums whereby experts teach us on how best to avoid the virus. I would establish a private ward/ wing in all hospitals to accommodate any Ebola patients. It would also show some of the ignorant

Friday, January 24, 2020

Feminists :: essays research papers

Feminists While surfing the internet yesterday I came across an article discussing women and their role in a changing society. The article, which was written by Karin Crosbie stated that although women have come a long way in the field of women's rights, there is still a long way to go. Crosbie stated that she is a feminist, and as a feminist it is her responsibility to see that action is taken to further the cause of the women by any means necessary. She explains that women should not have to prove anything to men by such means as shaving their legs, nor conform by covering up the natural self with makeup. I agree with the overall concept she is trying to convey, I feel that women do need to take action, and that not all opportunities are yet equal. The problem I have with her article is the image that she and other contemporary activists are coveying to the rest of society. When I think of a feminist two pictures come into mind. The first, which maybe a little outdated is a women like Susan B. Anthony, someone fighting for real issues that matter. The second is of a women like the author above, someone who is extreme just to be extreme. To my disappointment it seems the later is becoming more prevalent within society. After reading the article I scrolled down the page to where it listed "more feminist links", the five that were given consisted of; three lesbian rights pages, and two "neo-feminist pages". Thinking this must be only a small percentage of feminist pages which were given by this specific author, I went back and searched many of the feminist pages on the web myself. To my unpleasant surprise it turned out that almost all were expressive of the same extreme theme. So what does the current view of feminists as a whole mean to society? I feel that the current view of feminists is detrimental to the women's movement. One reason is that I feel the current views expressed by Crosbie are not only unattractive but in a way repulsive. Once women could be proud to say they were feminists. Today it is some kind of extreme word that places you amongst radicals. This image could turn away perspective activists who would be major contributors to the movement. Another reason is that the focus has become more on trivial extremities then on real issues. No one cares if women shaves her legs or not, and although it might be some kind of symbolic stand I feel it is a

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Comparing Miley and Taylor

Compare and contrast writing Topic: Compare two famous people: Taylor Swift and Miley Cyrus Outline * Background: started to perform at young age * Success: Forbes’ list, teenager’s idol all over the world * Composing habit: write about their own relationship Each celebrity tends to create their own style in both life and music to become unique and then impress audience. On newspapers or magazines, Taylor Swift and Miley Cyrus are two obviously different images, the former is innocent and graceful, the latter seems to be stubborn and strong; however, in fact, they share some surprising similarities.One important similarity is their background. Both Taylor and Miley started their career at their young age. When Taylor was nine, she spent most of her weekends singing at local festivals, fairs, coffee houses, etc. After impressing music managers by her performing at Radio Corporation of America records showcase, she signed her first contrast with Big Machine Records at the age of fourteen and released her debut album three years later. Like Taylor, Miley was just eight years old when she has her first role in the film ‘Doc’.Nevertheless, her name has not been known by the world until she received the leading role for the film ‘Hannah Montana’, a Disney Channel’s musical children series. Another similarity between Taylor and Miley is their fame. It goes without saying that both of them have great impact on young people. In 2010, Taylor held the 16th position on the Forbes’s Celebrity 100. Beside many worldwide hits, she sold over 26 million albums and 75 million download digitals and became one of the most successful female singers in the history of the US music industry.Similarly, Miley ranked number thirteen on Forbes’ list in the same year. She also won a Guinness World Record for the song ‘Party in the USA’ and has million fans all over the world. Finally, two beautiful singers share one habit which is that compose and sing songs about their lovers. One of the most famous relationships of Taylor was with Joe Jonas who broke up with her by a 27-second phone call. After the separation, Taylor wrote a song about his faithless and put it in her best-selling album, Fearless.Following this song, Taylor tends to integrate her own experience with man in each song she composes, and they all achieve their popularity. Likewise, Miley wrote the lyrics for the song ‘7 things’ about her ex-boyfriend and 12 other songs which are inspired by her relationship with her finance in her latest album. Although Taylor and Miley are unique artists, there are remarkable similarities in their background, reputation and composing habit. In a way, those are reasons why they are close friend in real life.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Bus 409 Essay - 888 Words

Compensation Practice Strayer University BUS409 –Compensation Management May 2, 2013 Compensation Practice This paper was developed under the scenario of choosing the name of a publicly traded company for that would be interesting for an employee to work and then analyzing and explaining the company, its compensation strategy, best practices the company is applying, and compensation-related challenges the company is facing. The paper will also analyze how the company applies compensation practice to determine the positive or negative impact to the company and its stakeholders; and the ways in which laws, labor unions, and market factors impact the company’s compensation practices. The company chosen was Chic-fil-a. Analysis†¦show more content†¦If wages increase then people will spend more money with comfortability if wages decrease then people will not spend money and hold on to every penny just like we were a couple years ago after the market crashed. Labor Unions have an effect on the wages paid to union employees and non-union employees in an economy. According to Employees and Right to Work Laws: Wages while they increase the wages of the union workers they decrease the wages of the non-union workers. When this happens then compensation like bonuses and pay increases are decreased in the non-union workforce. The market not only have effect on compensation practices it can affect an organization as a whole. According to a management study the demand for a particular skill affects the way the employer fixes the compensation for the employee, because the more technologically advance we become as a nation the demand for people to work on these products increase as well. The position of the company in the Business Cycle determines how much the company is willing to offer to the employee. Urgency of the organization in filling up the positions is an important role in determining how much the employer is willing to pay the employee. to support your discussion. Evaluation of Effectiveness of Traditional Bases for Seniority and Merit Pay AgainstShow MoreRelatedBus 409 Compensation Management948 Words   |  4 Pagestypes of skills or knowledge they are capable of applying productively to their jobs. (Martocchio, pg. 104, 2011) Based on the pay-for-knowledge pay concepts, the three jobs for which this basis for pay is inappropriate are: bus drivers, cashiers, and janitorial services. Bus drivers are all paid around the same pay scale and the compensation may differ depending on how much experience they may have. 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